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Jehoiachin Released September 9, 2017

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Here are my thoughts on Jeremiah 52:31-34.

Summary: In this passage, Jeremiah notes that after a lengthy prison term, Jehoiachin is pardoned by the new king of Babylon, Amel-Marduk. Moreover, Amel-Marduk grants him a daily allowance until his death.

Thoughts: I should note that I was not particularly impressed with the Crossway Classic Commentary on this book. In particular, the commentary essentially consisted of a series of trite observations; I do not recall any in-depth discussions of a particular passage or larger theme. My experience with this commentary stands in sharp contrast to that of other Crossway Classic commentaries, especially the masterpieces originally written by Charles Hodge. Perhaps the original commentary was a sprawling text, constraining the editors, Alister McGrath and J.I. Packer. In that case, I would have preferred that the editors not attempt to include Calvin’s thoughts on most of the verses; instead, they should have focused on his in-depth discussions of certain overarching themes, including:

  • the relationship between God and His people
  • Jeremiah’s thoughts and actions
  • the depravity of Babylon.

In fairness, I have not read the original commentary, so I do not know if Calvin actually provided in-depth discussions of these larger themes in that text.

Now that I have completed my stroll through Jeremiah, I have a – potentially – better idea regarding the position of this passage in the text. On one level, this passage is a fairly mundane account of the last days of an exiled monarch. On another level, though, perhaps God used this passage to remind His people of His promise concerning their eventual deliverance from exile in Babylon. Just as Jehoiachin was released from prison, so He would eventually release them from captivity; moreover, He would enable them to return to their homeland – surpassing Jehoiachin in that regard. If my hunch is correct, then this book concludes on a positive note. While God justly punished His people for their sinfulness, He never forsook them; indeed, He blessed them and restored them to a right relationship with Himself – through His Son, Jesus Christ.

A Message About Babylon September 1, 2017

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Here are my thoughts on Jeremiah 50-51.

Summary: In this passage, God speaks through Jeremiah to declare His comprehensive judgment on the Babylonians.

He states that they have committed the following offenses:

  • worshiping false deities – especially Marduk
  • displaying pride and arrogance – especially in relation to their military and their economy
  • plundering the land that He gave to His people
  • genocide against His people
  • desecrating the temple.

He then asserts that their nation will be invaded by the Persians. At that time, He will use the Persians as His sword to:

  • expose their false gods
  • cause them to be paralyzed with fear
  • slay their mercenaries
  • plunder their land
  • commit acts of genocide against them.

Their demise will elicit horror – and scorn – from neighboring countries.

He intersperses words of comfort to His people. In particular, He asserts that He will:

  • preserve them as a nation during the Persian invasion of Babylon
  • enable them to return to the land that He gave them
  • enable them to praise Him as their deliverer from Babylon
  • enable them to praise Him for His justice in punishing the Babylonians
  • establish a new covenant with them.

Jeremiah concludes by instructing a staff officer, Seraiah son of Neriah, to proclaim this message of judgment in Babylon itself.

Thoughts: This lengthy passage displays the holiness of God, as He proclaims His comprehensive judgment on those who attempt to besmirch His name by plundering the land that He gave to His people and committing acts of genocide against His people. It should be noted that while the language in this passage is reminiscent of previous passages that describe His judgment of other neighboring nations, a novel feature of this passage entails the five references to “the north.” These five references compel the reader to recall His declaration in Jeremiah 1 that, “from the north disaster will be poured out on all who live in the land.” As Babylon had brought judgment on Judah from the north, the Medes and Persians would bring judgment on Babylon from the north. This demonstrates His justice; He properly repays the Babylonians for their offenses.

On a similar note, this lengthy passage offers additional encouragement to believers around the world who endure persecution. These verses remind them that God does not turn a blind eye to their sufferings; indeed, He will vindicate them – displaying His holiness in the process. As believers, we trust that just as He vindicated the people of Judah – through the successful invasion of Babylon by the Persians – He will vindicate His people who suffer for His name. As a believer who is not being persecuted for their faith, I believe that this passage compels me to continue to pray for my brothers and sisters who lack the legal and social protections that I enjoy. I pray that they would have the strength to glorify His name in the midst of their sufferings, and I pray that God would grant them a significant reward in the next life.

In verses 61-64 of chapter 51, we see that Jeremiah commands Seraiah to proclaim God’s message of judgment in Babylon itself. I am curious as to whether the Babylonians learned of this message of judgment – whether they witnessed Seraiah’s declaration or heard it secondhand. If so, how did they respond to the forceful words in this message? Did they place their trust in their deities and the strength of their empire, dismissing this message as mere bluster from a vassal state? Did they attempt to punish Seraiah – and, by extension, Jeremiah – for their treasonous declaration? Did they recall this message when their land was invaded by the Persians? Did they ever acknowledge the sovereignty of the God of Judah?

A Message About Egypt July 30, 2017

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Here are my thoughts on Jeremiah 46.

Summary: In this passage, God proclaims His comprehensive judgment on Egypt. First, He asserts that their defeat at Carchemish by the Babylonians is an act of divine vengeance. He uses the Babylonians as His sword to destroy their formidable army.

He then asserts that their nation will be invaded by the Babylonians. At that time, He will continue to use the Babylonians as His sword to:

  • scatter their mercenaries
  • sack their cities
  • expose their false gods.

He concludes with some comforting words to His people. In particular, He asserts that He will preserve them as a nation – while judging the Egyptians.

Thoughts: In verse 2, God asserts that He punishes Pharoah Neco and the Egyptian army through their defeat at Carchemish. Since I am a history buff, I was delighted to learn that God played an active role on that momentous occasion. Indeed, since God is the Lord of History, perhaps He played an active role in other contemporaneous battles such as the Battle of Megiddo. Now this spurred me to pose the following questions:

  • if God is still the Lord of History, does He exercise His sovereignty to the same degree in all world events?
  • for example, is He as concerned with the outcome of a sporting event as He is with the work of a Bible translator?
  • does God exercise His sovereignty in modern warfare?
  • did God exercise His sovereignty in other historical conflicts that did not occur in the Middle East?

Here, we see that God punishes the Egyptians for their idolatry. Calvin offers some thoughts on this point in his commentary on verse 19:

As we have said, and as experience teaches, unbelievers are hardly moved when God summons them to his tribunal. They remain in their folly unless their torpor is shaken out of them. This is why the prophet attacks the wicked so strongly – that he may wake them up from their drowsy state.

This also spurred me to pose the following questions:

  • was this prophecy eventually communicated to the Egyptians?
  • if so, how did they respond to it?
  • if not, did God assert the irrelevance of their ignorance concerning the ultimate cause of their downfall?
  • what was the Egyptians’ concept of the God of Israel and Judah?
  • since at least part of this passage concerns events predating the fall of Jerusalem, when did God deliver this prophecy to Jeremiah?
  • did Jeremiah proclaim this prophecy to the Jews after they had fled to Egypt to escape the wrath of Nebuchadnezzar?

In verses 27 and 28, God directly addresses His people. Calvin offers some insights on this point in his commentary on verse 27:

The prophet now speaks to the Israelites, for he was not appointed a teacher to ungodly nations. Whatever he said to ungodly nations was for the benefit of his people.

Calvin’s insights reinforce the main point of this passage: the people of God should place their ultimate hope in Him – not in a foreign nation that does not worship Him. Now this main point can be extended to our context; it challenges us to consider the extent of our trust in God. How much do we trust tangible things, e.g. careers, financial institutions, the ground beneath us? What does it mean for us to place our ultimate hope in Him – and reflect that reality in our thoughts, words and deeds? Since we naturally gravitate toward tangible things, we need wisdom and strength from Him to view all tangible things as subservient to His will and purposes – and live in light of that reality. For example, we can pray about how God can be more fully glorified through our management of our finances.

Jeremiah Freed July 15, 2017

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Here are my thoughts on Jeremiah 40:1-6.

Summary: In this passage, Nebuzaradan discovers that Jeremiah is among the group of captives who are about to be exiled to Babylon. He acknowledges that the God of Israel has enabled his army to destroy Jerusalem, and he allows Jeremiah to decide whether he should travel with him to Babylon or remain with Gedaliah son of Ahikam at Mizpah.

Jeremiah selects the latter option; before they part, Nebuzaradan grants him provisions and a present.

Thoughts: In verses 2 and 3, Nebuzaradan acknowledges that God effected the downfall of Judah. This implies that the Babylonians were aware of the God of Israel and Judah and that they acknowledged His sovereignty over His nation. Did Nebuzaradan realize, though, that the God of Israel and Judah also asserted His sovereignty over the entire world – including Babylon? If so, did he immediately dismiss the God of Israel and Judah as a minor, local deity and trust in the power of the Babylonian gods? One must wonder if Nebuzaradan witnessed the defeat of Babylon at the hands of the Persians during the reign of Belshazzar; if so, did he comprehend the true nature of the God of Israel and Judah at that point?

Jeremiah in Prison June 24, 2017

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Here are my thoughts on Jeremiah 37.

Summary: In this passage, King Zedekiah requests that Jeremiah intercede with God on his behalf – as the Babylonians are besieging Jerusalem. At some point, the forces of Pharaoh advance on the Babylonians, leading to their (temporary) withdrawal from Jerusalem.

King Zedekiah and the people of Jerusalem grow complacent. God then speaks through Jeremiah, declaring that the Babylonians will return to Jerusalem and destroy it.

Later, Jeremiah is arrested and accused of attempting to desert to the Babylonians. He proclaims his innocence – yet he is imprisoned.

At some point, he informs Zedekiah that he will be captured by the Babylonians. Despite this ominous prophecy, Zedekiah grants his request to be placed in the relatively pleasant confines of the courtyard of the guard.

Thoughts: In verses 9 and 10, God asserts that the Babylonians will destroy Jerusalem. Calvin offers some thoughts on this point:

Jeremiah took it for granted that the destruction of the city of Jerusalem would not be effected by the forces of King Nebuchadnezzar or by his power or the number of his soldiers, but by God’s judgment…Jeremiah intimates that even if the contest were only with shadows, they would not escape the extreme vengeance that God had threatened.

Verse 10 is jarring; it is difficult to contemplate a wounded soldier staggering out of their tent and mustering the strength to torch the chief city of their foes. If that impossible event had occurred, the people of Judah would have been compelled to acknowledge that God was opposing them through the Babylonians. They would have admitted that God was giving the wounded Babylonians supernatural strength. Now I assume that the siege of Jerusalem ended in a more conventional manner, with (relatively) unscathed Babylonian soldiers overrunning the city; thus, I am curious as to whether an analogous event has occurred in the history of warfare…

In verse 18, Jeremiah decries his imprisonment before King Zedekiah. Calvin offers some thoughts on this point:

Although the prophet’s words had displeased the king, Jeremiah also complains that wrong had been done to him since he had been thrown into prison. In this way he shows that he had been unjustly condemned for having threatened ruin to the city and destruction to the kingdom, for he was constrained to do this by the obligations of his office. So the prophet shows that he had not sinned in this but had proclaimed God’s commands, however bitter they were to the king and to the people.

I found this verse to be somewhat amusing, as it immediately follows verse 17 – where Jeremiah declares that Zedekiah would be captured by King Nebuchadnezzar. Zedekiah would have found that turn of events to be incredibly humiliating; thus, he would have been angry with Jeremiah. How did Jeremiah have the temerity to proclaim his innocence before Zedekiah? Perhaps the best explanation is that Jeremiah knew that God was actually speaking through him; thus, he implicitly appealed to God to vindicate him. As modern-day believers, perhaps we can be inspired by Jeremiah’s actions in this passage; if we know that God is working through us, then we do not need to be ashamed.

In verse 21, we see that King Zedekiah ordered the transfer of Jeremiah from the house of Jonathan the secretary to the courtyard of the guard. Now I am curious: why did the king make this decision? Did he believe that by treating Jeremiah with more respect, God would respond by showing favor to him – and Jerusalem? Did God somehow work in his heart, enabling him to determine that Jeremiah should not be mistreated? Also, did Jeremiah alter his opinion of the king after he was transferred to the courtyard of the guard? Did Jeremiah harbor the belief that he should have been pardoned?

A Letter to the Exiles May 20, 2017

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Here are my thoughts on Jeremiah 29:1-23.

Summary: In this passage, Jeremiah pens a letter to the exiles in Babylon where he makes the following points:

  • they should adjust to life in Babylon – instead of pining for their homeland; moreover, they should pray for Babylon – and its rulers
  • God will restore them to their homeland after seventy years; moreover, He will restore them to a proper relationship with Himself
  • they should not envy their compatriots who remain in Jerusalem – as He will punish them with the sword, famine and the plague for their sinfulness
  • He will punish the false prophets in their midst, including Ahab son of Kolaiah and Zedekiah son of Maaseiah, for uttering lies in His name; in particular, King Nebuchadnezzar will burn them to death.

Thoughts: In verses 4-7, we see that God commands the exiles in Babylon to adjust to life in that foreign land. I am curious as to how those exiles responded to this command. Did they view Jeremiah as a false prophet who was essentially exhorting them to commit treason by praying for Babylon? Did they view Ahab and Zedekiah as genuine – and patriotic – prophets who were encouraging them through their promises of a brief confinement in Babylon? Or did God miraculously enable them to respond to Him appropriately? If so, how did they pray for their new masters? Did they intermarry with their new masters?

Verse 11 is a popular memory verse; thus, I was eager to comprehend it in its proper context when I read through this passage. Calvin offers some thoughts on this point in his commentary on verse 13:

But God shows that the right time would not come until their prayers proceeded from a right feeling; this is what he means by with all your heart. Of course, people never turn to God with their whole heart, nor is the whole heart engaged in prayer as much as it should be. But the prophet contrasts the whole heart with the double heart. So we should understand here not perfection (which can never be found in human beings) but integrity and sincerity.

Thus, we see that verse 11 does not constitute an unconditional promise on the part of God – as He will not bless us if we do not make a genuine effort to draw closer to Him. Another thought is that in verse 10, we see that the exile in Babylon would last for seventy years. In that case, most of the exiles would pass away in Babylon – and never return to their homeland. This sobering fact confronts us with this larger point: we will not receive most of the blessings of God until the next life. In light of that fact, perhaps we should view verse 11 as an exhortation for us to anticipate the greater blessings of the next life – which is manifested in a fruitful relationship with God in this life.

In verses 20-23, we see that Jeremiah curses the false prophets, Ahab and Zedekiah, for presuming to speak in God’s name. Their eventual fate reminded me of the trial that Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego experienced when they refused to worship the idol that King Nebuchadnezzar had constructed in Babylon. In that case, we know that God intervened to deliver them from the hand of Nebuchadnezzar. In this case, God does not intervene, and so Ahab and Zedekiah experienced a painful demise. Indeed, the notion of being burned to death is revolting; perhaps Ahab and Zedekiah perished slowly, screaming as the flames consumed their flesh. Yet this account should spur us to reflect on God and His holiness; His zeal for His name is great, and we must not besmirch it.

Judah to Serve Nebuchadnezzar May 14, 2017

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Here are my thoughts on Jeremiah 27.

Summary: In this passage, God commands Jeremiah to place a wooden yoke on his neck; this yoke is an object lesson for Judah and the following nations:

In particular, God will place the yoke of Babylon on them.

If any nation attempts to resist His will in this regard – by heeding the counsel of false prophets, who proclaim peace and prosperity – then He will punish them with the sword, famine and the plague.

Moreover, all of the articles in the temple in Jerusalem that have not been plundered by the Babylonians will eventually be taken to Babylon.

Thoughts: Here, we see that God commands various nations – including Judah – to submit to the rule of Babylon. This spurred me to consider the following principles that are established in Scripture regarding proper submission to the rule of non-believers:

  • being a good citizen brings glory to God
  • God has ordained the authority of all rulers – even non-believing rulers
  • one should only disobey their rulers when they compel them to sin, e.g. ordering them to worship a false deity.

In this case, while God commands Judah to submit to the rule of Babylon, He does not command them to worship the Babylonian gods, as that would be sinful; the account of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego reinforces this point, providing an example of proper resistance to non-believing rulers. Yet this causes me to ponder a related issue: as far as I can tell, Scripture does not explicitly advocate the abolition of slavery. If this is correct, then what is God’s viewpoint concerning efforts along these lines, e.g. the 19th-century abolitionists? Our modern sensibilities inform us that slavery is a moral evil, and the laws of First World countries prohibit it – yet slavery was protected by law in those same countries for quite some time. Did the actions of the 19th-century abolitionists constitute proper resistance to their governing authorities?

In verse 22, we see that the items that remain in the temple in Jerusalem will be taken to Babylon. Calvin offers some thoughts on this point:

He now repeats and confirms that what still stayed in Jerusalem will be taken away by their enemies, the Babylonians, who will attack them. Nebuchadnezzar had spared part of the temple and part of the city. He had taken away the most precious vessels but had not completely denuded the temple of all its decorations. Since some of its splendor still remained, the Jews should have seen that God had been kind to them. He now says that the temple and the city will be totally destroyed.

It is evident that God wanted to bring His people to the nadir of their nation’s history – compelling them to repent of their sins and return to Him. Unfortunately, the post-exilic books describe the persistent sinfulness and rebellion of Judah after God brought them back to their homeland. Moreover, after the incarnation of Jesus Christ, His people failed to grasp the significance of His person and work – merely viewing Him as the One who would deliver them from the Romans. His people could not return to Him on their own – He had to plant His Holy Spirit in them for this to occur. Indeed, we need His Holy Spirit to dwell in us, as we are not naturally inclined toward Him.

Seventy Years of Captivity May 6, 2017

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Here are my thoughts on Jeremiah 25:1-14.

Summary: In this passage, God speaks through Jeremiah – declaring that He has repeatedly:

  • exhorted the people of Judah to repent of their sinfulness
  • warned them that if they do not repent, then He will drive them from their land.

Since they persist in their idolatry, He will punish them by sending them into exile in Babylon for 70 years.

On a hopeful note, He promises to punish the Babylonians for the war crimes that they will commit in their invasion of Judah.

Thoughts: In verse 9, we see that God plans to work through King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon to punish His people. Calvin offers some thoughts on this point:

The Scriptures show that all mortals obey God whenever he plans to use them. This does not mean that they intend to serve God, but that he, through a secret influence, so rules them and their tongues, their minds and hearts, their hands and their feet, that they are constrained, willingly or unwillingly, to do his will and pleasure.

This passage serves as a great encouragement to those modern-day believers who face state-sponsored persecution. Here, God declares that He is sovereign over their political leaders – regardless of their hostility towards His church. Moreover, He declares that He works through their political leaders for His glory. Perhaps this passage can be applied more broadly to all who oppose God, including non-state actors who attempt to spread fear and terror through their actions. He does not overlook their sinful deeds; instead, He takes note of them, and He will punish them in His timing.

In verse 11, we see that God decrees that His people will be exiled from their land for 70 years. I believe that this is the first reference to the duration of the Babylonian exile in this book – though I may have overlooked a previous verse along these lines. In any event, I wonder if any of the exiles from Judah recalled this prophecy by Jeremiah during their confinement in Babylon. If so, did they believe that God was speaking through Jeremiah at that time? Did they draw strength and encouragement from this prophecy, trusting that God would eventually allow them – or their descendants – to return to their homeland?

God Rejects Zedekiah’s Request April 18, 2017

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Here are my thoughts on Jeremiah 21.

Summary: In this passage, Zedekiah, the king of Judah, sends an official delegation to Jeremiah. They request that Jeremiah intercede with God on Zedekiah’s behalf, as the Babylonians are besieging Jerusalem.

Yet Jeremiah responds by asserting that the siege of the Babylonians will be so fierce that famine and plague will decimate the population of Jerusalem. Those who survive these twin calamities – including Zedekiah himself – will be slaughtered by the Babylonians.

God then condemns Zedekiah as an unjust monarch.

Thoughts: It is evident that the people of Israel and Judah were strongly influenced by their rulers. The majority of a ruler’s subjects would follow his lead in terms of piety – or lack thereof. This spurred me to consider the modern-day analogy of this phenomenon. In particular, I would submit that the piety – or lack thereof – of a modern-day political leader does not directly impact the piety – or lack thereof – of many of their compatriots. I can say that I do not depend on my national leader in order to determine how to live piously. This raises the interesting question as to how political leaders can lose their moral sway over their compatriots. Perhaps the legalized separation between church and state plays a role in this regard.

In verse 9, we see that God recommends that the people of Jerusalem surrender to the besieging Babylonian forces – instead of continuing to resist them. Now if a resident of Jerusalem had surrendered to the Babylonians, I suspect that at least some of their compatriots would have viewed them as a traitor. The leaders of Judah likely exhorted their subjects to resist foreign invaders and defend their homeland at all costs. Clearly, though, the sinfulness of those leaders had deprived them of moral authority – leading God to display His disapproval of outwardly patriotic actions. God knew that the moral decay of Jerusalem was so great that it was not worth defending. On a related note, I am curious as to whether the Babylonians actually spared those who surrendered to them at that time. Did they torture their prisoners – and even kill some of them?

Jeremiah and Pashhur April 12, 2017

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Here are my thoughts on Jeremiah 20:1-6.

Summary: In this passage, the priest Pashhur punishes Jeremiah for his dire prophecies in the temple by having him beaten and (temporarily) imprisoned. Jeremiah responds to his punishment by declaring that God will punish Pashhur for his sins. In particular, Pashhur and his entire family will be sent into exile in Babylon; there, he will die and be buried.

Thoughts: I am curious as to how Pashhur responded to Jeremiah’s pronouncement of God’s judgment upon him. Was he gripped by fear, sensing that God was actually speaking through Jeremiah in this instance? Or did he dismiss Jeremiah’s words – including his declaration that Pashhur’s name had been changed to Magor-Missabib – as the ravings of a lunatic? What were his thoughts and emotions as the Babylonians ravaged Jerusalem and its populace? Did he eventually go into exile in Babylon, and if so, did he repent of his sins at that time?